CSS Tutorial

CSS Tutorial – Introduction

CSS stands for cascading stylesheet – is a stylesheet language works with markup languages like HTML. Primarily, CSS is used to design the raw webpage written in HTML or some other markup languages. CSS comes from the world wide web along with HTML and javascript and is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide web. In this CSS tutorial, we will cover all the basic and advanced features and implementation of CSS and CSS3 step by step.

CSS is very important to learn for every web developer and web designer just after learning the HTML. All the modern web browsers are built-in CSS and rich CSS3 supported. And all the websites you are visiting are designed by CSS.

A brief history of CSS

Stylesheet language like FOSI, DSSSL were not suitable, because they were not supported to extract stylesheet from different sources of the web. So after a public mailing list discussion, the development of CSS began. And it was proposed by Håkon Wium Lie in 1994.

CSS Versions and variations

CSS has several variations and levels. Generally, they are denoted as CSS1, CSS2, and CSS3.

CSS1: The first version of CSS or W3C CSS Recommendation (CSS1) or CSS Level-1 published in 1996. It was actually developed for providing the style of the web page. It was also called as CSS Level-1. The general features of CSS1 were implemented:

  • Unique HTML element identification (id) and classification (class) and some other group of attributes.
  • Some general font properties
  • Text color, alignment of text, image, backgrounds, table, etc.
  • Padding, margin, border and some other properties.

CSS1 is no longer maintained and supported by W3C and the World Wide Web

CSS2, CSS2.1, CSS2.2: CSS2 was developed in 1998 by the W3C with many new features including z-index, positioning, absolute, relative, etc. The concept of media-type was also introduced in CSS2.0.

CSS2.1 – a revision of CSS2 was developed with some major bugfix of CSS2. It was a stable version of CSS for several years. Several times it went into the draft for future improvement. And finally, the development of CSS2.2 began in 2015.

CSS3: CSS3 comes with many new features divided into some modules, and now it is the recommended version of CSS. Some of its modules and individual properties are recommended as a Candidate Recommendation.

Learn more about CSS and its history here

What is next?

Now we are familiar with CSS and its basic versions history. Now we are ready to work with CSS. This CSS tutorial was designed for beginners. It is also helpful for advanced learners. In the next subsequent chapters, we will learn how CSS works with HTML, How you will use CSS as a designer and developer, and all the CSS features, CSS module, and properties.